Fire Fighting

Table of Contents

Classes of fire

As per IS 2190 : 2010, for all practical purposes, the basic types of fires can be grouped into following four classes:

Class A firesFires involving solid combustible material of organic nature such as wood, paper, rubber, plastics etc, where cooling effect of water is essential for extinguishment.
Class B firesFires involving flammable liquid or liquefiable solids or the like where a blanketing effect is essential for extinguishment.
Class C firesFires involving flammable gases under pressure including liquified gases, where it is necessary to inhibit the burning gas at fast rate with an inert gas, powder or vapourising liquid for extinguishment.
Class D firesFires involving combustible metals, such as Mg, Al, Zn, Na, K, etc, when the burning metals are reactive to water and water containing agents and in certain cases carbon dioxide, halogenated hydrocarbons and ordinary dry powders. These fires require special media and techniques for extinguishment.

Methods of fire protection

  1. Passive: During planning.

    • Provide suitable and adequate fire detection system (Audio-visual).
    • Provide suitable measure to control the outbreak of fire.
    • Proper upkeep of building and electrical installation.
  2. Active:

    • Provide adequate fire resistance to the structure.
    • Provide proper FAR (floor area ratio- Total area of floor / Total plot area)
    • Provide adequate access to sufficient and readily available water supply for fire brigade.

Fire Bylaws

Fire Bylaws to building planning:

  1. Local Fire Bylaws.
  2. National Building Code
  3. DOT Guidelines/DOT Fire Protection Manual.
  4. TAC recommendation. (Tariff Advisory Committee consisting of experts on Fire Safety and manufacturers, nominated by consortium of Insurance Companies)

Remarks: Out of above 4, first 3 are mandatory while 4th is optional.

National Building Code

The National Building Code 2005 (Part IV) deals with the Fire and Fire Safety aspect. As per NBC, buildings are classified under 9 groups (A to H and J) and 31 subgroup.

GroupNameSub-division
Group ‘A’ResidentialLodgings, Dwellings, Dormitories, Flats, Hotels.
Group ‘B’EducationalSchool, Colleges, Recreations.
Group ‘C’InstitutionalHospitals, Old Age Homes, Orphanages, Jails, Mental Hospital, Reformatories.
Group ‘D’AssemblyTheatres, Drama Hall, Assembly Halls, Auditorium, Exhibition, Restaurants, Place of worship, Terminals.
Group ‘E’BusinessOffices, Banks, Labs, Computer Installations, Telephone Exchanges, Broadcasting and TV Stations.
Group ‘F’MercantileShops, Stores, Market.
Group ‘G’IndustrialAssembly and Industrial Plants, Labs, Pumping Stations, Refineries, Dairies, Saw Mills.
Group ‘H’StorageStorages, Sheds, Garages, Hangars, Stables.
Group ‘J’HazardousStorage, handling or manufacture of highly combustible or explosive materials.

NBC covers the following aspects:

  • Fire prevention and precaution;
  • Fire detection and alarm;
  • Safe exit of occupants in the event of fire;
  • Fire extinguishing apparatus.

Fire Fighting Requirements in High Rise Buildings

Every building, 15 m and higher shall have the following 12 nos. safety measures:

  1. 6 m access around the building for the fire tenders to move freely;
  2. One to two lakh litre storage tank with water reserves;
  3. Automatic / manual fire alarm system depending upon the type of buildings;
  4. Wet risers / down comers / hydrants around the buildings, hose pipe and hose reels;
  5. Portable fire extinguishers;
  6. Exit sign boards;
  7. Fireman’s lift with switch;
  8. Stand by power supply / generating set;
  9. Automatic sprinkler system;
  10. A central public announcement system (PA system);
  11. Setting up of the control room; and
  12. Compartmentation to contain the fire in the affected area to avoid travel of smoke from one side to the other.
  • The equipments are to be properly maintained and kept in the state of readiness for use in emergency conditions.
  • Presence of non functional systems gives a false sense of security.
  • Horizontal compartmentation is achieved by providing doors leading to other areas, floors, corridors, lift lobby etc. and should be closed position all the time.
  • Vertical compartmentation is achieved by sealing of vertical shaft with non combustible material.
  • Encroachment in corridor, stair case lobby, lift lobby with furniture, office, files, malbas, almirahs results into blockage or narrowing down common areas and means of escape routes.

Fire Fighting System

Fire Triangle

One way of discussing fire or combustion is in terms of the "triangle of fire" or combustion. Three factors are essential for fire: heat, oxygen (or air) and a combustible substance (or fuel). Fire or combustion will continue as long as these three factors are present. Removal of one of them leads to the collapse of the triangle and the combustion process stops.

Types of fire fighting system: The fire fighting system can be divided in two types based on the principle of operation viz. Manual and Automatic. Other basis of division is whether the system is portable like portable fire extinguishers, fire bucket, first aid boxes or it is fixed installation of dry risers, down comers, wet risers, sprinkler system.

Portable Fire Extinguishers

Portable fire extinguishers, though not suitable for large fires, are very valuable in the incipient stage of fire. These can be effective only if they are used promptly and properly and are maintained properly.

Types of Fire Extinguishers

The common types of fire extinguishers are:

  1. Water type
  2. CO2 type
  3. Foam type
  4. Dry powder type
  5. Halon type

Soda acid type and chemical foam type extinguishers have been phased out. Halon type extinguishers have been restricted for essential use as long as technically suitable replacements are not available.

Water type fire extinguishers

These are of two types: gas cartridge or stored pressure. They are filled with ordinary and pressurised air and are labeld APW for 'Air-Pressurised Water'. These are essentialy large squirt guns and extinguish fire by taking away the 'heat' in Fire Triangle.

They are suitable for class A fires only, as water on a flammable liquid could cause fire to spread. Also they should not be used where electrical equipment are involved in fire. If there is no choice, electrical equipment must be disconnected or de-energized. They can be used in public hallways and residences.

CO2 type fire extinguishers

Carbon dioxide is a non-flammable gas that takes away the Oxygen element of the fire triangle. CO2 is very cold as it comes out of the extinguisher, so it cools the fuel as well. The pressure in a CO2 extinguisher is so great, bits of dry ice may shoot out of the horn!

These are suitable for Class B and C. It may be ineffective in extinguishing a Class A fire because it may not be able to displace enough oxygen to successfully put the fire out. Also, class A materials may smolder and re-ignite.

They can be used in laboratories, mechanical rooms, kitchens, and flammable liquid storage areas.In accordance with NFPA regulations (and manufacturers’ recommendations), all CO2 extinguishers undergo hydrostatic testing and recharge every 5 years.

Foam type fire extinguishers

Fire fighting foam is an aggregate of gas filled bubbles forms from an aqueous solution of suitable foaming agent. Foam is produced by mixing a foam concentrate with water to the appropriate concentration, and aerating and agitating the solution to form the bubble structure. There are a number of foaming agents, some of which are: Protein foaming Agents (P), Fluoroprotein foaming Agents (FP), Aqueous film forming foaming Agents (AFFF).

When used on a flammable liquid (Class B) fire, which is there primary purpose, the agent is discharged as a foam on the the surface of the burning liquid. The foam cuts off the fire’s oxygen supply and discourage re-ignition. For fire in live electrical equipments, foam type should not be used, as they are conductive.

Dry powder type fire extinguishers

These extinguishers put out fire by coating the fuel with a thin layer of dust. This separates the fuel from the oxygen in the air. The powder also works to interrupt the chemical reaction of fire. These extinguishers are very effective at putting out fire.

Dry powder extinguishers are designed for a variety of fires, even for class D fires. They may be labelled as DC (for “Dry Chemical”), ABC (for class A, B, or C fires), BC (for class B and C fires). The “ABC” fire extinguishers are filled with a fine yellow powder. The greatest portion of this powder is composed of monoammonium phosphate. The extinguishers are pressurized with nitrogen.

It is extremely important to identify which types of dry powder extinguishers is available. You don’t want to mistakenly use a “BC” extinguisher on a Class A fire thinking that it was an “ABC” extinguisher.

“BC” extinguishers may be used in commercial kitchens and areas with flammable liquids, while "ABC" can be used in public hallways of new buildings, in laboratories, break rooms, offices, chemical storage areas, mechanical rooms, university vehicles, etc.

Selection of fire extinguishers

All fire extinguishers are not suitable for all classes of fires, so nature of contents of a building, processes carried out therein and class of fire, which may occur shall be taken into consideration for selecting extinguisher. The table below shows extinguisher most suited against each class. This is as a guide and does not cover special cases.

Suitability of fire extinguishers
Sl NoType of extinguisherClass of fire
  ABCD
1Water (gas cartridge) type, IS 940, IS 13385 ✓  ✗  ✗  ✗ 
2Water (stored pressure) type, IS 6234 ✓ ✗ ✗ ✗
3Carbon dioxide type, IS 2878, IS 8149 ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗
4Mechanical foam (gas cartridge) type, IS 10204, IS 13386 ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
5Mechanical foam (stored pressure) type, IS 14951, IS 15397 ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
6Dry powder (gas cartridge) type, IS 2171, IS 10658 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗
7Dry powder (stored pressure) type, IS 13849 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗
8Dry powder type for metal fires, IS 11833 ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓
9Clean agent gas type, IS 15683 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗
10Halon 1211 type, IS 4862, IS 11108 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗

Also as far as possible, fire extinguishers installed in one building or single occupancy should be similiar in shape and appearance and have same method of operation. They should have same control device, even if they are designed for different class of fire. This will avoid confusion in operation and simplify training for use of extinguishers.

Where energized electrical equipment is involved in fire, non-conductivity of the extinguishing media is of utmost importance and only dry powder, CO2 (without metal horn), or vaporizing liquids should be used. The extinguisher which have passed electrical conductivity test should only be used. Once electrical equipment is de-energised, extinguisher suitable for the class of fire risk involved can be used.

Where cleanliness and contamination of sensitive electrical /electronic equipments are of utmost importance, or where the sensitivity of the control instrument or electronic equipment and systems are likely to be affected, only CO2 or Clean Agent type extinguisher should be used.

Dry powder extinguisher, when used in confined areas, may reduce visibility for few minutes, which may temporarly hamper escape, rescue, or other emergency action.

For fires involving polar solvents and other water misceable flammable liquids, dry powder type or mechanical foam (with alcohol-resistant foam) type extinguisher should be used.

Dry powder type are most effective for class B fires, but where fuel surface is shilelded by powder, they are not effective. Also, dry powder, brings a quick down agent, is ideal for tackling 'running' or '3D' fires involving flammable liquids.

As Soda Acid type extinguishers are phased out, it should be replaced by water type.

Appropriate type of fire extinguisher should be used, lest fire may get even worse. Most fire extinguishers will have pictograph labelling indicating the class of fire for which it is designed.

Extinguishers, extinguishing media and charger/refills should confirm to relevant IS.

Number and size of fire entinguishers

A fire extinguisher should operate instantly and have adequate throw and enough quantity of extinguishant to control the fire in the initial stage. Fire extinguishers should be provided both for protecting building structure as well as its contents and occupants.

The number and size of fire extinguisher depends on the type of hazards. Hazards can be classified as:

  1. Low Hazard
  2. Moderate Hazard
  3. High Hazard

Class A fire: In case of low hazard, one 9 l water type / 5 kg dry powder type per 200 m² area with minimum of 2 extinguishers per compartment / floor. In case of medium hazard, two extinguishers per 200 m² area with a minimum of 4 per compartment / floor is to be provided. For high hazard, in addition to provision as per medium hazard, one 50 l water / 25 kg dry powder for every 100 m² of floor area shall be provided.

Class B fire: In case of low hazard, one 9 l foam type / 5 kg dry powder type per 200 m² area with minimum of 2 extinguishers per compartment / floor. In case of medium hazard, two extinguishers per 200 m² area with a minimum of 4 per compartment / floor is to be provided. For high hazard, in addition to provision as per medium hazard, one 50 l foam / 25 kg dry powder for every 100 m² of floor area shall be provided.

Class C fire: In case of low hazard, one 2 / 3 kg dry powder type per 20 m² of floor area to be provideda. In case of medium hazard, one 10 kg dry powder (store pressure) type or 5 kg clean agaent or 6.5 kg CO2 type extinguishers per 100 m² area with a minimum of 1 per compartment is to be provided. For high hazard, double than medium hazard are to be provided.

Class D fire: One 10 kg dry powder for metal fires for every 100 m² of floor with minimum of two extinguishers per compartment/room

Location of fire extinguishers

The extinguishers should be placed in conspicuous positions and shall be readily accessible for immediate use. In general, they should be placed as near as possible to exits or stair lands without hindering the escape routes.

Extinguishers should be sited in such a way that the user should not have to travel more than 15 m to get it. They should be similiarly placed on each floor.

Extinguishers sholud be placed as near as possible to the risk area, but care should be taken that it is not placed so near as to be inaccesible in case of fire.

Selection of fire extinguisher for telecom application

As a general rule, CO2 & Dry Powder type are used in equal ratio. The number of fire extinguishers and their location is decided by keeping following factors in mind:

The extinguishers shall be hung on brackets or kept in shelves and shall have their bottoms 1000 mm above the floor levels. Extinguishers shall not be kept too close to the equipment.The minimum number of extinguishers to be provided shall be as under:

  1. For Technical Buildings: One 4.5 kg CO2 type Extinguisher for every 100 m² of floor area or part thereof. Out of the above one can be of trolley type. In addition 5 kg dry powder / clean agent type extinguisher per 600 m² of floor area shall also be provided in corridors/staircase lobby. Minimum two extinguishers shall be provided in one technical room. The units shall be so located that a person does not have to travel more than 15 m to reach the nearest extinguisher and for technical rooms location shall be depending upon room importance and fire hazards.
  2. Sub-stations, HT/LT switchgear rooms: One 5 kg Dry Powder / Clean agent type extinguisher and one 4.5 kg CO2 type extinguisher in each room or cubicle.

How to use a Fire Extinguisher

'PASS' principle: 

  • Pull the pin to be able to discharge.
  • Aim at the base of fire.
  • Squeeze the top handle to release pressurized extinguisging agent.
  • Sweep from side to side until fire is completely out.

Rules for fighting fire:Fires can be very dangerous and you should always be certain that you will not endanger yourself or others when attempting to put out a fire. So whenever fire is discovered:

  • Assist any person in immediate danger to safety, if it can be accomplished without risk to yourself.
  • Call 100 or activate the building fire alarm. The fire alarm will notify the fire department and other building occupants and shut off the air handling system to prevent the spread of smoke.

After this, if the fire is small, you may attempt to use an extinguisher to put it out but keep these things in mind:

  • Know what is burning. If you don’t know what’s burning, you won’t know which type of extinguisher to use. Chances are you will know what’s burning, or at least have a pretty good idea, otherwise, let the fire department handle it.
  • Start using the extinguisher from a safe distance away, then slowly move forward. Once the fire is out, keep an eye on the area in case it re-ignites.
  • Even if you have an ABC fire extinguisher, there may be something in the fire that is going to explode or produce toxic fumes.
  • The time to use an extinguisher is at the beginning stages of the fire. If the fire is already spreading quickly, it is best to simply evacuate the building. As you evacuate a building, close doors and windows behind you as you leave. This will help to slow the spread of smoke and fire.

Do not fight the fire if:

  • You don’t have adequate or appropriate equipment.
  • You might inhale toxic smoke. When synthetic materials such as the nylon in carpeting or foam padding in a sofa burn, they can produce gases which can be fatal in very small amounts.
  • Your instincts tell you not to. If you are uncomfortable with the situation for any reason, just let the fire department do their job.
  • The final rule is to always position our-self with an exit or means of escape at our back before we attempt to use an extinguisher to put out a fire. In case the extinguisher malfunctions, or something unexpected happens, you need to be able to get out quickly. We don’t want to become trapped.

Wet Riser System

A wet riser is an arrangement for fire fighting within the building by means of permanently charged vertical rising mains not less than 100 mm internal diameter with hydrant outlets and hose reel on each floor landing connected to a water tank with a fire pump and to an overhead tank. When any valve is open, the pump should start automatically.

It consists of following components:

  1. Rising Main.
  2. Fire Tank.
  3. Pumps.
  4. Landing valves.
  5. Hose Reels & Hose Boxes.
  6. Ring Main and Yard Hydrant.
  7. Fire Brigade Inlet.
  8. Air release valve.
  9. Piping.

All high rising buildings shall be provided with a wet riser system as per local fire byelaws. In case there are no fire byelaws, all buildings above 15 m in height shall be protected by a wet riser system.

The wet riser installation shall confirm to IS 3488 : 1989 (Code of practice for installation and maintenance of internal fire hydrants and hose rels in multi-storeyed buildings). The wet riser pipes shall be of MS class ‘B’ confirming to IS 1239. The accessories shall confirm to IS codes.

  1. Riser Mains: The size and number of internal vertical rising main depends on the height of the building and floor area. For buildings above 15 m in height, there shall be at least one riser to each 1000 m² or part thereof of floor area. The hydrant shall be so located that it is not farther than 30 m from any point in the raea covered. The internal diameter of the riser shall be 150 mm (as per NBC).

    The riser shall be fully charged with a minimum pressure of 3.5 kg/cm² at the terrace level at all the times and shall be automatic in operation. In buildings whose height is 60 m or more special pressure reducing and pumping arrangement shall be made.

  2. Fire Tank: A satisfactory supply of water for the purpose of fire fighting shall always be available in the form of an underground static water storage tank. The capacity of underfround static tank shall be as under:

    1. For buildings upto 15 m in height: 50 000 litres.
    2. For building with height 15 m to 24 m: 100 000 litres.
    3. For buildings beyond 24 m in height: 200 000 litres.

    Note

    As per NBC the capacity of fire tank shall be 2 lakh litres in two equal sections connected through a valve.

    Arrangement for replenishing of the static tank with mains or alternative source of supply at the rate of 1000 LPM should be available. When this is not possible tha capacity of the tank shall be suitably increased in consultation with the local fire brigade.

    The static tank shall be provided with manhole(s) for inspection, repairs and insertion of hose. The covering slab shall be able to withstand a vehicular load of 18 tonnes.

    To prevent stagnation of water in the static tank the suction tank of domestic water supply shall be fed through an overflow arrangement to maintain level therein at the minimum specified capacity.

    The static water tank shall be provided with a fire brigade inlet to discharge the water at a rate of 2250 LPM.

    All buildinbs above 15 m in height (unless specified differently by local fire byelaws) shall in addition to the static water tank, be provided with a terrace tank of 20 000 litres capacity along with dry riser both duly connected as per specifications. This need not be provided if automatic pumps at ground level are provided.

    Fire tanks (both static and overhead) shall be exclusively for fire fighting purpose and shall not be utilized for domestic or other purposes.

  3. Fire Pumps: The fire pumps shall be installed in a pump house preferrably away from the building. One main electric driven pump, one standby diesel engine driven pump and one jockey pump shall be provided as per specifications. If sprinkler system is there, pump for tha same should also be provided.

    The capacity of fire pumps shall be 2400 LPM giving a pressure of 3.5 kg/cm² at the terrace level. All pumps shall be directly coupled.

    1. Jockey: It is of 3-4 HP and operates for small drops in pressure due to leakages etc for a pressure drop upto 2 kg/cm².
    2. Main Fire Pump: It operates for large drop in pressure.
    3. Standby Engine Driven Pump: It of same capacity as main fire pump but it is diesel driven.
    4. Sprinkler Pump: It is used where sprinkler system is provided. The standby pump for main pump also works as standby to this pump.
    5. The pumping duty should be such that there is a pressure of 3.5 kg/cm² at terrace level.

    A direct feeder without any tappings shall be laid from the sub-station to the pump house. The control panel shall be located in the pump house. The fire pump circuit shall be protected at the origin by circuit breaker without under voltage/no volt protection so as to permit the motor to be overloaded during emergency to the maximum load permissible by the manufacturer. Alternatively, fuse switch unit with HRC fuses continously rated to at least 250 % of full load current of fire pump motor shall be provided. All such fuses/fuse switch units shall be of AC-23 duty.

    Pumps should operate automatically. For this purpose it is provided with a pressure switch at the delivery point of the pump to operate the pump. The starting equipment of the electrical pump shall not have no-volt coil. A repeat indication shall be provided in the control room to indicate operation of pumps and fault indication in the wet riser installation.

  4. Landing Valves: Valves provided on each floor for taking water through water hose. These internal hydrants shall comprise a twin 63 mm GM valve with 63 mm instantaneous coupling at a height of 1 to 1.2 m above floor level; one valve is permanently connected to a hose reel drum. Same master key should open all the locks.

  5. Hose Reel & Hose Boxes: First aid hose reels and hose boxes shall be installed on all the floors of the buildings. The first aid hose reel, is in addition to hose reel, is a rubber pipe with small nozzle is which can be operated by occupants.

    The hose reel with nozzle is provided at each floor for use by fire/trained personnel. The hose reels shall be connected to one of the female couplings of twin landing valves of the wet riser installation by means of an adapter. In the hose reel box two numbers of 15 m long 63 mm dia hose shall be kept along with the attached coupling and one branch pipe nozzle.

  6. Ring Main & Yard Hydrant: In the open compounds a ring main or tree main with suitable number of yard hydrant shall be provided so that one hydrant is available at every 60m length of the building. The distance of yard hydrant from the building may be 2m to 15m.

    The external hydrant shall be of oblique pattern GM landing valve confirming to IS 5290 fixed on a 80 mm diameter stand post. A hose box shall be provided to accommodate yard hydrant with stand post, two nos hose pipes each of 63 mm diameter and 15 m long with instantaneous GM male and female coupling and one 63 mm diameter GM short branch pipe with nozzle. The hydrant main shall be buried at a minimum depth of 1 m below ground.

  7. Fire Brigade Inlet: A fire brigade inlet at ground level fitted with a non-return valve is also provided for charging the rising mains with a fire brigade pump in the event of failure of fire pump.

    Fire brigade inlet connection is also provided for the underground static water storage tank. This inlet connection will be with 4 Nos. 63 mm diameter instantaneous male inlet arranged in a valve box at a suitable point at street level and connected to static water tank by a suitable fixed pipe of not less than 150mm diameter to discharge the water at a rate of 2250 LPM.

  8. Air Release Valve: It is provide at the highest point to keep the air bubbles out. Also air vessel is used to observe vibration be means of air cushion.

  9. Piping: Example: Suction Pipe Size Calculation

    Maximum velocity of flow as per clause 7.4, 1.9 of fire protection manual is 120 m/min.

    Now  Q = AV

    where Q is flow in m³/min,  A is cross-sectional area in m² and V is velocity in m/min.

    Value of Q when one pump is working  = 2.85 m³/min. (pump capacity) and Value of Q when two pumps are 
    working = 5.70 m³/min

    So pipe cross sectional area required when one pump is working

    A = Q/V = 2.85/120 = 0.02375 m².

    Nearest pipe size available = 200 mm diameter (Cross sectional pipe area = 0.0314 m²).

    And pipe cross sectional area required when two pumps are working

    A = Q/V = 5.70/120 = 0.0475 m².

    Nearest pipe size available = 250 mm diameter (Cross sectional area of the pipe = 0.049 m²).

    Based upon the above calculation 200 mm pipe is provided for individual pipe and the common header is of 250 mm diameter.

Dry Riser

When building is 2 to 3 floored. Here only pipe and valves are provided so that they can be used by fire brigade pump.

Down Comer

Here overhead tank is used and so pump is not required.

Automatic Sprinklers

It is required for buildings having height more than 15 m or according to the provisions of local fire byelaws. It is Mandatory for basement and areas as mentioned in NBC. Here piping is taken from wet riser to around the basement or designated area. One fusible link is provided there which operates in case of fire and water gets sprinkled through nozzles.

Automatic high pressure water spray or foam sprinkler shall be installed in basement and sub-basements which are used for car parks, sub-station, engine alternator, cable chamber and storage of explosives and hazardous materials.

All buildings exceeding 45 m (unless otherwise specified in local fire byelaws) shall be provided with automatic sprinkler on all the floors.

Switch room may be provided with NASF III Gas suppresion system. Water sprinkler should not be used for places where electrical items like sub-station are installed.

Other Items

Fire Buckets

Two water and two sand fire backets of 9 litres capacity shall also be installed outside the equipment rooms and in lift lobbies/staircase lobbies of the building at each floor. Only sand buckets (2 nos) shall be provided in substation & other areas with electrical equipments. For other areas/buildings one number fire bucket shall be provided for every 100 m² or part thereof subject to a minimum of four buckets per floor.

Medical Equipments

In all buildings following medical equipments shall be provided:

  1. Gas Mask Respirators: 2 Nos. on each floor.
  2. Resuscitators: 2 Nos. on each floor.
  3. Breathing Apparatus: 2 Nos. in each multi-storeyed building (in fire control room).

Above equipments shall be placed in glass front metal cabinets at conspicuous locations. In addition first aid boxes shall be provided at conspicuous locations at each floor and in fire control room.

Drawing: Fire Fighting System

1.YEAR OF INSTALLATION…………………………………………………………
2.COSTRs. ………………………………………………………
3.UNDER GROUND TANK CAPACITY…………… …………………
4.PUMPS
S.N.TYPE OF PUMPMAKEMODEL NO.CAPACITY
1.MAIN ELECTRIC PUMP   
2.DIESEL PUMP   
3.JOCKEY PUMP   
5.NO. & SIZE OR RISERS…………………………………………………………
6.NO. OF FLOORS…………………………………………………………
7.NO. OF OUTLETS PER FLOOR………………………………
8.OUTLETS PROVIDED ON (Name of floor)……………………………………………
9.TYPICAL FLOOR CARPET AREA…………………………………………………………
10.HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING………………………………………………………
11.NO. OF YARD HYDRANTS………………………………………………………
12.INSTRUCTIONS
 Pressure to be maintained in pump room header…………….. kg/cm².
 (Note: As per fire bylaws, the pressure at the highest/farthest outlet should be 3.5 kg/cm².)
13.LAYOUT PLAN
 Showing all lines of building, compound, position of under ground tank, pump room, location of risers, landing valve, yard hydrant, staircase, lifts.

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